## Wednesday, October 01, 2014

### On the master theorem vs Akra-Bazzi

Everyone knows the master theorem.

Or at least everyone reading this blog does.

And I'm almost certain that everyone reading this blog has heard of the generalization of the master theorem due to Akra and Bazzi. It's particularly useful when you have recurrences of the form
$$T(n) = \sum_i a_i T(n/b_i) + g(n)$$
because like the master theorem it gives you a quick way to generate the desired answer (or at least a guess that you can plug in to the recurrence to check).

(And yes, I'm aware of the generalization of A/B due to Drmota and Szpankowski)

When I started teaching grad algorithms this fall, I was convinced that I wanted to teach the Akra-Bazzi method instead of the master theorem. But I didn't, and here's why.

Let's write down the standard formulation that the master theorem applies to
$$T(n) = a T(n/b) + f(n)$$
This recurrence represents the "battle" between the two terms involved in a recursive algorithm: the effort involved in dividing (the $a T(n/b)$) and the effort involved in putting things back together (the $f(n)$).

And the solution mirrors this tension: we look at which term is "stronger" and therefore dominates the resulting running time, or what happens when they balance each other out. In fact this is essentially how the proof works as well.

I have found this to be a useful way to make the master theorem "come alive" as it were, and allow students to see what's likely to happen in a recurrence without actually trying to solve it. And this is very valuable, because it reinforces the point I'm constantly harping on: that the study of recurrences is a way to see how to design a recursive algorithm. That decimation as  a strategy can be seen to work just by looking at the recurrence. And so on.

But the Akra-Bazzi method, even though it's tremendously powerful, admits no such easy intuition. The bound comes from solving the equation
$$\sum a_i b_i^p = 1$$ for $p$, and this is a much more cryptic expression to parse. And the proof doesn't help make it any less cryptic.

Which is not to say you can't see how it works with sufficient experience. But that's the point: with sufficient experience. From a purely pedagogical perspective, I'd much rather teach the master theorem so that students get a more intuitive feel for recurrences, and then tell them about A/B for cases (like in median finding) where the master theorem can only provide an intuitive answer and not a rigorous one.

## Friday, September 26, 2014

### STOC 2015 Deadline: Nov 4, 2014

Via Ronitt Rubinfeld comes word that the STOC 2015 CFP is out.

Submission deadline: Tuesday, November 4, 2014, 3:59pm EST

Conference: June 14-17 2015, Portland, Oregon (part of FCRC)

## Saturday, August 23, 2014

### LaTeX is code...

I'm giving a talk on LaTeX this Monday as part of our new grad student "boot camp" series. It's really more of an interactive presentation: I'll use writelatex (or sharelatex) to demo examples, give student simple assignments, and use real-time chat to see how things are going. It should be quite interesting.

Here's the talk announcement:
Did you know that every time you use $..$ to italicize text, or use \\ to force a newline, Leslie Lamport cries out in agony and Don Knuth starts another fascicle of Volume IV of TAoCP ?
Come and learn about how to use LaTeX, and use it well. Your collaborators will love you, your advisors will love me, and you'll realize that the most awfully written drivel looks awesome when typeset well.
This will be interactive!! I'll be using a shared space for editing and viewing latex documents, and there will be class activities, so please do bring your laptops/tablets/other editing device so you can follow along and participate.

For this talk I solicited comments from colleagues as to what they'd like their students to learn. Probably the most useful comment I got was from +Robert Ricci and +Eric Eide: to whit,

LaTeX is code.

This might seem obvious, but once you internalize it, all kinds of other things become very natural. For example
• You should really use some kind of IDE to write and build your documents
• Version control is your friend
• *sections should be separate files.
• Use macros where convenient
• Don't reinvent: use the many many built-in packages at ctan.org
• Use tex.stackexchange.com to learn how to hack whatever you need in LaTeX.

A corollary: to see a theoretician editing LaTeX close to a STOC/FOCS/SODA deadline is to realize that theory folk are AWESOME programmers.

## Tuesday, August 19, 2014

### Long Live the Fall Workshop (guest post by Don Sheehy)

An announcement for the Fall Workshop in Computational Geometry, by Don Sheehy

In all the conversation about SoCG leaving the ACM, there were many discussions about ownership, paywalls, and money.  This leads naturally to questions of ideals.  What can and ought a research community be like?  What should it cost to realize this?  Isn't it enough to bring together researchers and in an unused lecture hall at some university somewhere, provide coffee (and wifi), and create a venue for sharing problems, solutions, and new research in an open and friendly atmosphere?  There is a place for large conferences, with grand social events (Who will forget the boat cruise on the Seine at SoCG 2011?), but there is also a place for small meetings run on shoestring budgets that are the grassroots of a research community.

The Fall Workshop on Computational Geometry is such a meeting.  It started in 1991, at SUNY Stony Brook and has been held annually every fall since.  I first attended a Fall Workshop during my first year of graduate school, back in 2005.  This year marks the 24th edition of the workshop, and this time, I will be hosting it at the University of Connecticut.  It is organized as a labor of love, with no registration fees.  There are no published proceedings and it is a great opportunity to discuss new work and fine-tune it in preparation for submission.  It is perfectly timed to provide a forum for presenting and getting immediate feedback on your potential SoCG submissions.  I cordially invite you to submit a short abstract to give a talk and I hope to see you there.

Important dates:
Submission deadline: Oct 3 midnight (anywhere on earth)
Conference: Oct 31-Nov 1, 2014.

## Wednesday, August 13, 2014

### Interdisciplinary research and the intellectual richness of data analysis

Slides on a brief introduction to themes in machine learning from an algorithms perspective, and some thoughts on the mathematical richness of the study of data.

## Wednesday, August 06, 2014

### A brief note on Fano's inequality

I've been bumping into Fano's inequality a lot lately, and have found the various explanations on the web somewhat lacking. Not because they aren't useful, but because their perspective is very different to the kind that I'd prefer as an algorithms person.

So after grumbling and mumbling and complaining, I decided the only solution was to write my own ! And here it is, as a raindrop.

Eh ? What's that you say ? And here we're just getting used to twitter ?

Raindrops are a web publishing form designed by the company run by our very own V. Vinay. When I was in India last I visited him in Bangalore, and he showed me the system. It's a nice way to make presentations or short lectures.

The raindrop I created is embedded directly in my blog, but can also be viewed directly at this link. I hope you like the medium, and the content !

## Sunday, July 27, 2014

### A response to Vint Cerf

A somewhat grumpy response to +Vint cerf 's request for feedback on how the ACM can do more for "professional programmers".

Dear  Dr. Cerf
In your recent letter to the members of ACM, you write "I would like to ask readers how they satisfy their need to keep informed about computing practices and research results that may influence their own work". While I suspect your goal is to understand how ACM can serve the larger tech community and not the research community and I am a card-carrying member of the latter group, I thought I'd respond anyway.

First up, it's an ambitious (and brave!) idea to think that the ACM (or any single entity for that matter) can serve the needs of the vast technology enterprise. There was probably a time before the web when professional societies played an important role in collecting together people with shared interests and disseminating valuable information out to interested individuals. But now we have your current employer ! and online communities galore ! and Quora ! and the Stackexchange ecosystem ! and so many different ways for people to build communities, share information and learn about new ideas percolating through the world of tech.

It's a little funny though that you're worried about ACM's presence in the professional world. Many of us have long assumed that ACM spends most of its focus on that side of the computing community (the excellent revamp of the CACM under +Moshe Vardi  being the exception that proved the rule). In fact, I'd go as far as to argue that the ACM would be much better served if it were instead to realize how it's driving itself into irrelevance in a research community that so desperately needs an institutional voice.

How do we satisfy our need to keep informed about results that might influence our work ? We (still) read papers and go to conferences. And how does the ACM help ? Well not very well.

• Aggregating the deluge of information: anyone will tell you that the amount of research material to track and read has grown exponentially. But we still, to this day, have nothing like PUBMED/MEDLINE as a central clearinghouse for publications in CS-disciplines. The ACM DL is one step towards this, but it's a very poor imitation of what a 21st century repository of information should look like. It's not comprehensive, its bibliographic data is more erroneous than one expects, and the search mechanisms are just plain depressing (it's much easier to use Google)
• Dealing with the changing nature of peer review and publication: Sadly, ACM, rather than acting like a society with its members' interests at heart, has been acting as a for-profit publisher with a some window dressing to make it look less execrable. Many people have documented this far more effectively than I ever could.
• Conference services: One of the services a national organization supposedly provides are the conference services that help keep communities running. But what exactly does the ACM do ? It sits back and nitpicks conference budgets, but provides little in the way of real institutional support. There's no infrastructure to help with conference review processes, no support for at-conference-time services like social networking, fostering online discussion and communities, and even modern web support. I only bring this up because all of these services exist, but piecemeal, and outside the ACM umbrella.

Underneath all of this is a slow but clear change in the overall CS research experience. The CRA has been doing yeoman service here: taking the temperature of the community every year with the Taulbee surveys, putting out a best practices document for postdocs after extensive community discussion, and even forming action groups to help gain more support for CS research from the government. Does the ACM do any of this ?

In many ways, this is a golden era for computer science, as the fruits of decades of work in our field seep out into the larger world under the guise of computational thinking, big data and learning. It's a perfect time for an organization that has deep connections in both the academic side of CS and the industrial side to help with  the translation and tech transfer needed to maximize the impact of the amazing new technologies we're all developing, as well as reach out to similar institutions in other areas to bring more CS into their communities (as you rightly pointed out)

But there is no sign that ACM has ideas about how to do this or even wants to. And while it continues to chase a professional tech community that doesn't seem to care about it at all, the academics who would have cared are finding their own way.